Immigration to Croatia
Living and Working in Croatia
Croatia, a crescent shaped country situated at the northwestern side of Balkan Peninsula and at the crossroads of central and southeast Europe with entire coastal area lying on the Adriatic Sea. Croatia is a Schengen country popular amongst foreigners for many things such as the Balkan Wars, World Cup Football, Ancient Roman Ruins, Honey, Pag Cheese, Lavender fields, Game of Thrones, etc. Croatian delicacies are popular for its unique taste; some of them are Black Risotto, Boskarin, Brodetto, Buzara, Fritule, Istrian Ham, etc. Croatia is a place where you must enjoy the coffee culture, it’s simply a way of life for the Croatians. Croatia is a geographically diverse country featuring low mountains and highlands near the coastline.
Croatia is surrounded by Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Southeast, also sharing a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest. The capital city is Zagreb, which is also the largest city with rich historical background. You will find the oldest settlement of the Romans in Zagreb. There are many tourist places in Croatia to visit like Rovinj, Rijeka, Sibenik, Varazdin, Zadar, Split etc. The most prominent tourist destination is Dubrovnik, which is historically known as Ragusa. Croatia is the developed country with high income economy.
The population of Croatia as of January’24 is over 3.9 million, with 91% of the population are Croats. As per the Croatian Bureau of Statistics, a total of 57,972 persons immigrated to Croatia in the year 2022. Out of this 82.2% were immigrants from countries other than Croatia. Immigrants from Ukraine were 19.3% and 14.6% of the total were from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Statistics shows that the Immigration population in Croatia consists of Chinese, Nepalese, Kazakhs, Indians, Filipinos, Brazilians, Kenyans and citizens of Kyrgyzstan. As of December’2023, there are over 11000 Indians living in Croatia. Around 20.6 million tourists visited Croatia in 2023 making it one of the most visited destinations in the Mediterranean. Croatia has many visitors from Germany. It is estimated that more than 3 million Germans visited Croatia out of the 15.3 million visitors and tourists in 2022.
All the restrictions regarding the covid-19 pandemic have been lifted by the Croatian Government and travelers can enter Croatia without showing the proof of vaccination or negative PCR test result. Precautions must be taken while visiting the hospitals, pharmacies and labs like applying masks and sanitizing hands in Croatia.
Make sure that your passport meets the Schengen Area passport requirements. Mainly that the passport is issued less than 10 years before the date you enter a Schengen country. (Passport issued date). Secondly it must be valid for at least 3 months after the date of arriving in a Schengen country. (Passport expiry date). For more detailed information on Visas requirements, please visit the Republic of Croatia, official website: mvep.gov.hr
How to reach Croatia – By Flight:
Traveling to Croatia by flight is the most comfortable, cheaper and easiest way. The seven main international airports in Croatia are: Zagreb Airport, Dubrovnik Airport, Split Airport, Pula Airport, Zadar Airport, Rijeka Airport and Bol Airport. There are cheap and fast flights from other European countries to Zegreb and Dubrovnik. Direct flights are available and operated by the Croatia Airlines from London to reach the major cities like Zagreb, and British airways, which run year round direct flights from London Gatwick to Dubrovnik and Zagreb, twice weekly seasonal flights are from London to Split. Easy Jet, Wizzair, Jet2 and Ryanair, Aer Lingus operate seasonal service to Pula, Dubrovnik, Zadar, Osijek, from many foreign countries like Italy, Ireland, etc. There are no direct flights from North America to Croatia, however most major airlines offer one or two stop flights via the major European cities.
By Ferry: Many companies operate ferries from Italy and Greece to Croatia. All year round ferries provide services from Ancona in Italy to Zadar and Split. Ferries also run from Bari to Dubrovnik. These ferry rides are slow compared to the flights but also provide you the most scenic views. There are some additional fast ferries to Losinj, Rab, Hvar and Zadar.
By Bus: The Flexibus runs from Venezia and Trieste in Northern Italy to Istria and Rijeka in western Croatia, these provide services all around the year and are convenient and comfortable.
By Ferries: Ferries are a way of life especially at the coastal parts and around the island. While visiting Dalmatia, Zadar, Split or Dubrovnik, travel by ferry at least for a part of your journey. This is a popular means of transport, especially from one island to another. This is much cheaper option than flights.
Travel within Croatia by Bus : Buses are the best option to travel within Croatia as they are very clean and comfortable. They are always available and prices are moderate.
Rentals Car: Renting a car for sightseeing Croatia, is a better option, as you may see sights that many tourists otherwise miss. Croatia has beautiful coastline, waterfalls, lakes and breath-taking landscape. At the comfort of your car and feeling more independent one can enjoy Croatia to its full.
Documents Required for car rentals:
- Passport with six-month validity
- No visa required for less than 90 days stay (also depends on your nationality)
- No vaccination certificate required.
Croatia has several means of transport, so that you can travel with public buses, taxis, uber, ferry and flights. Always carry a copy of your passport and visa. For more travel advice please visit: croatiaspots.com & roughguides.com
How to immigrate to Croatia
To obtain a tourist Visa for Croatia, the cost and the term of the visa may vary depending on your nationality. The citizens from countries like Brazil, USA, and Mauritius are permitted to get the visa free stay up for 90 days. This also means they can enter Croatia for up to 90 days during the 180-day period without getting a visa in advance.The nationals from an EU/EEA member state are allowed to enter without visa and do not have restrictions on the number of days they want to stay in Croatia. National of other countries, who do not have a visa waiver agreement with Croatia can enquire about visa with their local consulate and will need to apply for a visa as per to purpose of visit i.e. work, study or to live a peaceful life after retirement.
Croatia is a part of the Schengen Agreement. Citizens from China, Argentina and Cameroon must apply for the visa in advance for their stay up to 90 days in a 180-day period. The citizens of Indonesia must apply for visa first and can only stay for up to 30 days only within the 180-days period.
The following documents are required for Schengen Visa:
- Application form (filled and duly signed)
- Passport size two photographs
- Valid passport
- Travel insurance
- Flight tickets, etc.
Temporary Residence Permit:
Spouse and children of EU/EEA/Swiss nationals are entitled to temporary residence, as long as they are all living together at the same address in Croatia.
EU Blue Card:
You can apply for EU Blue Card (work permit) if you have received higher education or qualification such as ISCED 1997 levels 5a or higher or an associate’s degree or higher. Employers within the EU/EEA can hire you on approval of the Blue Card.
Residence permit can be obtained for stay more than 90 days in Croatia depending on your nationality and can be up to 5 years. There are two types of Residence Permits – Temporary Residency Permit and Permanent Residency Permit. First you need to apply for temporary residence permit and after 5 years of consecutive years of temporary residence you can apply for the permanent residency.The temporary residence is applicable in the following situations:
- EU/EEA national and their spouses
- Family reunification
- Digital nomads
- Highly qualified knowledge migrant
- Language study
- Scientific research
- Humanitarian grounds
- Volunteering grounds
- Work through starting a business
- EU/EEA Blue Card
- Property ownership
Non EU/EEA/Swiss nationals must first find a job in Croatian company and then apply for work and residence permit. The work permit is given by the employer.
The Residents of Croatia are called “the Croats” who belong to a South Slavic group native to Croatia and neighboring countries in the Southern part of Europe. They share a common Croatian ancestry, culture, history and language. They are situated in different parts of the world such as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Italy, Mongolia, Serbia, Slovenia, USA, etc. Around 79% Croats are Catholics, some 3.32% are orthodox Christians and around 0.26% are Protestants. Croatia is predominantly a Christian country, with Islam being a minority. There are some 1.3% of the population practicing Islam in Croatia. As of 2022, there are 4736 Jehovah’s Witnesses in Croatia, who are known for sharing the Bible’s message of hope.
Job offers in Croatia
Croatia is a better place to work and live, for which work visa and permits are necessary. Residence and work permits are combined nowadays which is issued based on a favorable opinion of the Croatian Employment Service. Prior to this, you must submit the application for issuance of a residence and work permit. Foreigners and expats can work in Croatia as Waiters, Cleaners and helpers in offices, hotels and other establishments. Foreigners and expats can work as Cooks, Travel Consultants, Clerks, Print Finishers, Binding workers, Travel guides, Fitness and Recreation Instructors and Program Leaders, etc. These jobs are in demand and give a moderate payout.
There are several websites on the internet which helps you find a job and apply online. Given below are some of the popular job portals:
You can find jobs through the word of mouth, through facebook groups, through recruitment agency, by reaching companies directly, by searching on Croatian job sites like Adorio, Bika, Danas Radim, Freelance.hr, Posao, etc.
The jobless rate in Croatia has gone down to 6.1% in the Month of April 2023 from 6.5% in the previous month, which is the second lowest unemployment rate since the month of September 2022. The number of unemployed persons decreased by 5.9% from the month earlier to 105,350 people and on the other hand the number of employed persons gone up by 0.7% to 1.61 million. Moreover, the number of people outside the labor force increased by 0.2% to 1.7 million. In the month of April 2022, the unemployment rate was higher at 7%. Unemployment rate is the share of labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. These days the unemployment rate is decreasing and is projected to go down furthermore in the future.
For more information please visit: tradingeconomics.com
Economy of Croatia
According to the source the GDP of Croatia is projected to grow by 1.7% in the year 2023 and 2.4% in 2024. The economy of Croatia is high income, service based social market economy. Today Croatia has a fully integrated and globalized economy. Croatia comes under Eurozone and is now classified as a developed country or an advanced economy, as per the IMF who provides this title to highly develop industrial nations. Tourism is one of the biggest pillars of the Croatian economy, generating 19.6% of Croatia’s GDP. Croatia working towards becoming an energy powerhouse with its floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) and investing in green energy, precisely wind energy, solar and geothermal energy.
Main industries are Chemical and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and its refining, food & beverages, and tourism. Export partners are Italy, Germany, Slovenia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Export items are transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels. Good imported are machinery, Transport and electrical equipment, Chemicals, fuels & lubricants, and foodstuffs. Import partners are Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Austria.
Renting and buying of real estates for foreigners
Renting a property is possible in Croatia for expats. Renting is a thriving rental business to support the tourism industry. The landlords believe that they can earn more money from short term tourists rather than long term visitors. The rental prices in major cities such as Zagreb, Velika Gorica, Split and other places situated along the Adriatic coast are increasing day by day. On the other hand, rental rates in Gorski Kotar, Lika, Banija, Kordun and eastern side of the country are cheaper. These points must be taken into consideration when you decide where to live and whether you would like to own or rent a property. Hiring a real estate agent fluent in Croatian language will be beneficial, who will be able to help you understand the contract terms in details.
To find a property on Rent, it is suggested to look for the sign “For Rent” on houses and also search online advertisement/local newspapers. The biggest and most popular website to find apartment in Croatia is Njuškalo.hr. This website has vast information about apartment and home rentals like condos, single rooms, houses, garages, office space and land. Property images, descriptions, specs and prices are also posted on this website. Before you move in a house, make sure you make a contract as per the terms decided between the owner and you. The amount of rent may vary from city to city as it depends on the place and size of the property.
Websites for renting a property:
- Index oglasi
Foreigner and expats are allowed to buy a property in Croatia. Buying a property in Croatia is easy for an EU resident, however, the regulations are different for a non-EU resident. A agricultural land or forest in Croatia cannot be purchased by a international residents, whether they are from EU member state or a non-EU member state. To buy a property in Croatia there must be a reciprocity agreement between the origin country of the buyer and Croatia. The buying process varies depending on the citizenship of the foreigner. All eligible buyers must register the property whether it is for residential, investment or rental purpose. There is also a 3% property purchase tax levied by the Croatian Government on the total sale price written on the contract. Therefore, all the owners should be registered as taxpayers and apply for a tax number.
Property close to the coastal areas like Split, Zadar and Dubrovnik are pricey compared to the central and eastern part in Croatia. For the non-EU nationals the process of purchasing a property is more complex and takes a lot of additional documentation. There are websites like plitvicepropertycroatia.com to help you get your dream home in Croatia. These online platforms will assist you with the process as these are created by the expats who are familiar with buying property in Croatia.
Documents needed to buy a property in Croatia:
- Croatian visa for Non-EU citizens
- Tax Registry Number (AFM)
- A copy of annual tax return, etc.
The climate in Croatia is Mediterranean Climate. It is hot and dry in summer and in winter mild and rainy. Croatia has three distinctive seasons:
- low season which is from November through April
- shoulder season from May to mid-June & mid-September to October
- high season from mid-June to September
Low Season (November to April)
Visiting Croatia from November to March is not the ideal time as there is quiet everywhere; moreover, the hotels, restaurants and activities are closed due to winters. Beaches are completely empty and unattended, while in summers the coastal towns and beaches are crowded and it feels lively. In winters you can go for skiing on Sljeme Mount near Zagreb or Platak near Rijeka. City of Zagreb gets cold, foggy and humid and there are chances to see some snow during winter. Istria gets lot of rainfall throughout the year. Low season is the best time to visit Dalmatia.
Shoulder Season (May to Mid-June, Mid-September to October)
This is the best time to visit Croatia as the days are longer, outdoor activities are on its peak, hotels and restaurants are busy in welcoming guests. In Croatia this is the time where you experience late Spring and early Fall. There is also a food festival celebrated in Croatia in the month of October. The weather is generally good although it is unpredictable sometimes especially during May to October. This time is also perfect for sightseeing as it is not too hot or too rainy. The nights are mostly chill.
High Season (Mid-June to Mid-September)
During this season, the peak travel time is from the last week of July till mid-August, hence there are majority of tourists visiting Croatia. It is the best time to go to the beaches as the weather is hot and sunny. The temperature goes from 20°C to 30°C. High season is an ideal time for clubbing, partying and music festivals. July and August are considered as the hottest months, hence it is suggested to take precautions especially during daytime. The best time to visit Croatia in the months from mid-June to mid-September.
For more information please visit: frankaboutcroatia.com
The official language is Croatian, which also serves as literary standard of Croatia. Croatian is counted as one of the official language of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Vojvodina (a province in Serbia), the European Union. It is also a recognized minority language in Serbia and other neighboring countries. Croats are multilingual, fluent in English, French and German. English is the language spoken by more than 60% population of Croatia. It is also used in educational institutions and government offices. There are many other non-official, minority languages and some Croatian dialects that are used by the locals. Minority languages spoken by Croats are Italian, German, Serbian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Rusyn, Ukrainian, Romani and Slovene. Other official languages spoken in Croatia are Bosniak, Albanian, and Slovenian. The Croatian Sign language is used by the deaf and mute people in Croatia. For an English native speakers Croatian is a hard Language to lean, but you can still learn some basic words. Just click on the following link and learn the Croatian language in 17 minutes per day. 17-minute-languages.com
For more information on the Croatian language please visit: wikipedia.org
The roads in Croatia are generally in Good conditions. There are multi-lane motorways that run from north to south & east to west. A few roads have a single carriageway. Roads on some islands are narrow and do not have protective fence. However, the government is continuously working to improve the infrastructure of the roads. Traffic is heavy in places like Zagreb, Split and Rijeka, mostly during peak rush hour. During summer months’ people drive rashly in cities especially on weekends there are road congestions. Village roads are good in Croatia and get busy traffic only during tourist season. Driving on these countryside roads is beautiful and you may come across some wild animals like deer, rabbits, pheasants, hedgehogs and even foxes. Bicycles, tractors and vehicles used for farming are mostly seen on these roads.
Standard traffic rules in Croatia are as follows:
- Drivers must carry Driving License (home country driver’s license in Latin), Traffic License & Green Card, Passport or ID (if you are a tourist)
- If home country’s driver’s license is not in Latin than International Driver’s license is required to drive in Croatia
- Traffic drives on the right side
- Seat Belt is compulsory (even for backseats). Child seat is compulsory for children having height less than 135 cm. Children taller than 150 cm can occupy the front seat
- No mobiles except hands-free
- Maximum Blood Alcohol level is 0.05 mils for drivers above 24 yrs. of age
- The Speed limits are: motorways = 130 km/h; rural / open roads = 90 km/h; Urban / inner-city roads = 50 km/h
- Headlights must be on compulsory from 1st November to 31st
- Must have snow chains in the car in the winter especially on winter road sections. If you visit Croatia in Winter, check for winter roads before you drive.
Emergency numbers while traveling on road:
- +385 1987 – Road assistance emergency (HAK – Croatian Auto Club)
- +385 192 – Police
- +385 194 – Emergency medical assistance
- +385 112 – General emergency line
Euro is the official currency of Croatia. It replaced Kuna on 1st January 2023. The Euro is a European monetary unit used by more than twenty EU countries out of twenty-seven European Union countries. The symbol used for Euro is (€) and the currency code is EUR. Euro is divided in 100 cents (c).
The bills of €200, €500 and the coins of 1c, 2c are rarely used but still in circulation. Coins 1c, 2c are also rarely used in Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Italy and The Netherlands. The Euro is issued by the European Central Bank and is one of the most traded currencies in the world’s foreign exchange markets.
The Euro in Banknote is available in the following denominations:
€5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200, €500
The Euro in Coins is available in the following denominations:
€1, €2, 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c, 20c, and 50c
Croat vendors and shopkeepers accept cash, cards or online payment. Among these methods, credit cards are one of the most common and popular ways for customers to purchase online. Multinational financial corporations like Visa, MasterCard, American Express (AMEX) and Discover process payments between merchants and card issuing banks. Millions of users around the world are able to purchase products online by using these branded credit cards. The most popular cards are Visa and MasterCard.
Cheques and invoices are some of offline methods to transfer money used by Croats. Cash is the easiest way to make payment, small shopkeepers and vendors accept cash, so it is suggested to keep some cash with you in case of emergency. Prepaid cards, international credit cards, debit cards, e-Wallets and bank transfers are also the payment methods used in Croatia.
Mobiliamo is a mobile payment app that allows customers from all over the world to make secure and fast payments from their mobile devices. Mint prepaid card is another payment method which is a universal cash payment option that is secure, accessible and easy to use. This card allows its users to pay online for digital goods and services worldwide. Payment system has evolved over the time with the advanced technology. There are many ways to make and receive payments online, such as GooglePay and ApplePay, etc.
List of payment methods in Croatia:
- Mobile payments
- Bank Transfer
- Credit and Debit Cards
For more information visit: paymentwall.com
Cost of living in Croatia
Croatia is the third cheapest country in Eastern Europe. The cost of living in Croatia is cheaper than fifty percent countries in the world. Major cities like Zagreb, Zadar, Split, Pula, Rijeka are expensive than rural areas. Average living cost in Croatia also depends upon your lifestyle and living standard you choose. The average monthly expense for a single person is approximately €1,400. The approximate monthly expense will rise if you move along with your family, which will be €3,100. Food items and beverages are cheaper compared to housing and dining. Staying in a city where university or office is reachable by bicycle or by walking will cut the cost of living. Monthly house rent will cost more in the main city than in rural areas.
Here are some products mentioned below, so that you will get a clear idea of the cost of living:
Amount in Euro (€)
Whole Fat Milk
12 (a dozen)
1 Kg (2 lb.)
500 grams (1 lb)
Fast food meal
8 mbps (1 month)
Public transport ticket
For 2 persons
Utilities (heating, gas, electricity)
1 month, 2 people in (900 sqft.) flat
Utilities (heating, gas, electricity)
1 month, 2 people in (480 sqft.) flat
For more information on cost of living in Croatia visit: expatistan.com
The average size for an apartment in Croatia is 900 square feet, however it varies depending of the type of the apartment. One bedroom apartments are generally under 1000 sqft, while two to three bedroom apartments are bigger in size. Studio apartments are the smallest and most affordable.
In Zadar the rents are highest, followed by the capital city Zagreb and Split. Fully furnished one-bedroom apartment in the city centre will cost approx. €580 and same apartment outside city will cost around €480. A furnished studio apartment of 2 to 3 bedrooms in the city centre will cost €960 and outside the city it will cost €750 approximately. The following websites sites will to help you find the best accommodation you are searching for:
Colleagues, friends, shopkeepers or waiters in the nearby café or restaurants are a good help in locating a rented place. So let them know that you need a rented place. Hire a Croatian speaking real estate agent or friend to negotiate the rent and terms of the rental agreement.
Both residents and non-residents pay taxes in Croatia. There are more than 20 different types of taxes applied on various businesses and activities. The taxes are divided into six brackets namely:
- National – VAT, Corporate Income Tax (profit made by companies & entrepreneurs), Excise duty, Special taxes on motor vehicles and vehicle insurance premiums, special tax on coffee, soft drinks, Alcohol, Energy products & electricity etc.
- City and Municipal
- Award Games
For more information please visit: wikipedia.org
Health insurance in Croatia has both the private and public healthcare system. Croatia private healthcare system is more efficient and seamless as compared to the public healthcare system. Health insurance is compulsory for every citizen of Croatia. It is imposed by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) and is regulated by the Compulsory health insurance act. Health insurance and healthcare for international residents and expats is governed by Compulsory Health Insurance and Health Care of Aliens in the Republic of Croatia Act.
Health Insurance is must for the persons mentioned below
- Permanent residency holders
- Expats having permanent stay or long term residency
- Citizens of other EU Member State, EEA, Switzerland and UK and Northern Ireland, residents of the country who have signers a treaty with Croatia on social insurance, citizens of state which is not a Member State or contracting state with approved temporary stay, and on the basis of employment, respectively performs economic or professional activity in Croatia, providing the conditions of special regulations governing the issue of residence and work of international citizen in Croatia have been met and unless otherwise stated by the European law or international treaties on social security.
- Citizens of EU/EEA member state or resident of Switzerland with approved temporary stay in Croatia provided they do not exercise compulsory health insurance in another member state of the EU/EEA/Switzerland.
- Residents of a state that is not EU member state /EEA country/Switzerland with a temporary stay in Croatia, unless otherwise stated by the European law, international treaties on social security or special laws.
Rights under the Health Insurance includes
Primary health care
- Specialist-consultative health care
- Hospital health care
- Medication needed by the basic list of the CHIF
- Dental prosthetics prescribed by the basic orthopedic and other medical prostheses list of the CHIF
- The right to cross border health care
Compulsory health insurance also provides for the rights on the basis of accidents suffered at workplace and occupational diseases.
Croatia is attracting thousands of tourists each year to enjoy at the Mali Losinj Island, Pag Island; Novalja, Plitvice lakes, deep caves, waterfalls, etc. Croatia is visited by foreigners for its rich history, breathtaking views, lush green nature and delicious cuisines like Black risotto, Boskarin, Brodetto, Ham, Cheese etc.
Croatia is the developed country with high income economy. Croatia provides social security, universal healthcare and tuition free primary and secondary education with supporting culture through public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing. People from all over the world come to Croatia for education, job and site-seeing. This is a good place to get work as long as you have strong professional connections. Zagreb is the capital and the largest city, which is also considered as a masterpiece of Austro-Hungarian architecture. Upper town in Zagreb is the site of the Gothic and twin-spired Cathedral and nearby there is a pedestrian friendly Street, with several outdoor cafes. Lower town has plus shops, main-square, museums and parks.
In Croatia, everybody has to pay income tax, however healthcare is free for both the citizens and expats. Croatia has vibrant market places, beautiful houses, monuments, with lively, helpful, and hospitable people. Nightlife here is colorful with streets full of music, pubs and lounges. The city like Split and Zadar has plenty of bars and restaurants. Several places are safe and fun to visit, keep a local friend with you so that you know where to go and what areas to ignore. Croatia is safe to visit as crime rate is relatively low but it is suggested to stay alert all the time and safeguard your valuable things. Croatia gives freedom so that everybody can follow their own religious beliefs and this makes it a culturally diverse. It is also an upper middle class country.
Moving to Croatia
Compare the costs and save up to 40% on your move. Within just 1 minute you can get the 5 best offers from over 1,000 professional international moving companies here for free. Over 200,000 emigrants have successfully used this service to date.
Translation Of The Documents
With Lingoking you can have all documents (such as driver’s license, birth certificate, marriage certificate, B2B and other categories) translated into the local language (or vice versa) quickly and inexpensively. The following link will take you to the selection page: Calculate the price for your translation