Immigration to Ireland

Living and working in Ireland

The Republic of Ireland, commonly known as Ireland, is indeed a country located in Northwestern Europe. Ireland is an island located in the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St. George’s Channel to the southeast, and the Irish Sea to the east. Ireland shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Dublin is the largest city and the capital of Ireland, situated on the eastern side of the island. Dublin is a major financial hub in Europe.

Ireland is known for its lush green landscapes, scenic countryside, cliffs, hills, and beautiful beaches. It has a rich cultural and literary heritage, a passion for sports, and a vibrant nightlife scene with music, pubs, and Irish whiskey. There are many castles and ruins to explore in Ireland, adding to its historical charm. Ireland is considered a developed country with a high quality of life, ranking high in the Human Development Index. It has a strong healthcare system, economic freedom, and freedom of the press. Ireland is a member of the European Union (EU) and a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. Ireland ranks among the top wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita.

Ireland has a history of immigration, but in recent years, it has also become a popular destination for immigrants from various parts of the world. There are several reasons why people choose to immigrate to Ireland. Ireland’s strong economy and job market make it an attractive destination for foreign workers, particularly in industries such as technology, healthcare, finance, and engineering. Irish universities and colleges offer a high standard of education, with several institutions consistently ranked among the top in the world. Being a member of the European Union, Ireland allows citizens of other EU countries to move and work freely within its borders. Moreover, Ireland is known for its welcoming and friendly atmosphere. Ireland is considered safe, and its people are known for their hospitality.

Traveling information 

Flag of Ireland by Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay
Flag of Ireland

The Irish Government has lifted all COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, and visitors are no longer required to fill out a passenger locator form. Furthermore, there is no need to provide proof of vaccination or a COVID-19 test. However, it is advisable to take precautions such as wearing masks and using hand sanitizer. To enter Ireland, a valid passport and visa are mandatory, especially for foreign citizens. Ireland is a member state of both the EEA and EU, meaning that EU and EEA citizens do not require visas. To find out the list of countries that require visas and those exempt from these requirements on the website

Ireland is an island nation, which means it is not connected to neighboring countries by a land route. It is surrounded by water and does not share a land border with any other country. Therefore, you can only reach Ireland by air or sea travel, as there are no land routes that lead to Ireland.

Reach Ireland by Flight:

Reaching Ireland by air is generally the easiest and fastest way for international travelers. Ireland’s international airports are strategically located across the country, providing convenient access to different regions of Ireland. The names of the major 5 international airports are: 

  • Dublin Airport (DUB) – Located in the capital city, Dublin, it is the largest and busiest airport in Ireland.
  • Shannon Airport (SNN) – Located in County Clare, Shannon Airport serves as a gateway to the western and southwestern regions of Ireland.
  • Cork Airport (ORK) – Situated in County Cork, Cork Airport serves the southern part of the country.
  • Knock Airport (NOC) – Situated in County Mayo, serves as a gateway to the western region of Ireland.
  • Belfast International Airport (BFS) – technically situated in Northern Ireland, serves both Northern Ireland and the border region.

These airports are strategically located across the country, providing convenient access to different regions of Ireland. Many major cities in Europe and North America have direct flights to Irish airports, minimizing layovers and travel time. Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland and offers a comprehensive network of flights to and from Dublin Airport, Cork Airport, and Shannon Airport. They also provide transatlantic flights to destinations in North America. Ryanair is a low-cost airline based in Ireland. The following are the few major airlines that offer flights to Ireland: 

  • British Airways serves multiple Irish airports, including Dublin Airport, Cork Airport, and Belfast City Airport, offering connections to the UK and worldwide destinations via London Heathrow and London Gatwick.
  • Lufthansa, a major German airline, provides flights to Ireland from various international hubs, connecting travelers to destinations in Ireland via Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Air France offers flights to Ireland from its hub in Paris, connecting travelers to Dublin Airport and Cork Airport.
  • KLM Royal Dutch Airlines connects Ireland to destinations worldwide via its Amsterdam Schiphol hub, serving Dublin Airport and Cork Airport.
  • Emirates operates flights to Dublin Airport, offering connections to its vast network of destinations in the Middle East, Asia, and beyond.
  • Delta offers transatlantic flights to Dublin Airport from various U.S. cities, providing convenient access to Ireland from North America.
  • American Airlines operates flights to Dublin Airport from several U.S. cities, facilitating travel between the United States and Ireland.
  • United Airlines offers transatlantic flights to Dublin Airport, providing options for travelers coming from North America.

Reaching Ireland by Sea:

Ireland is indeed a popular destination, and traveling by ferry from England to Ireland can be a convenient and cost-effective option. There is a single major ferry route that connects England to Ireland, specifically from Liverpool to Dublin. This route is operated by P & O Irish Sea and offers multiple sailings throughout the day and night, providing travelers with flexibility in choosing their travel time. 

It’s advisable to pre-book your ferry tickets, especially during peak travel seasons, to ensure you have a spot on the ferry and to avoid any inconvenience. The duration of the ferry journey from Liverpool to Dublin is approximately eight hours, so passengers should plan their trip accordingly. The ticket prices for ferry travel can vary depending on several factors, including the type of ticket (passenger only or with a vehicle), the time of booking, and the time of travel. Traveling with a vehicle is typically more expensive than purchasing passenger-only tickets, so travelers should consider their specific needs and budget when making their booking. 

Additionally, it’s worth noting that there are other ferry routes to Ireland from various locations in the UK, such as Holyhead to Dublin, Fishguard to Rosslare, and more. These routes provide options for travelers to choose the most convenient departure point based on their location in the UK. Overall, traveling to Ireland by sea can be a scenic and enjoyable experience, offering an alternative to air travel for those who prefer a slower-paced journey or wish to bring their vehicles with them.

Within Ireland, you can get around using buses, trains, trams (in some cities), taxis, and even bicycles. Among these options, buses are generally the most budget-friendly. 

  • Buses: Bus Éireann operates most intercity services, while Dublin Bus serves the capital city. For adults traveling within the city, the usual cost for a single bus journey is roughly between €2.50 and €3.30. If you have a Leap Card, you can get a discount on these fares. 
  • Trains: Trains, operated by Irish Rail, are comfortable for traveling between major cities and towns but can be pricier, especially for longer journeys. 
  • Trams: In Dublin, the Luas tram system is convenient. It’s a quick way to move around Dublin and is reasonably priced. 
  • Taxis: Regular taxis and hackney cabs are available, but are usually more expensive than public transportation. They have meters to calculate fares. In addition to these two main types of taxis, ride-sharing services like Uber are available in some Irish cities. 
  • Bicycles: Many cities have bike lanes and bike-sharing programs, offering a cost-effective and eco-friendly option.

How to Immigrate to Ireland

To enter Ireland, often referred to as the ‘Emerald Isle,’ you may need an Ireland Visa, depending on your nationality. Remember that having an Irish visa alone does not grant entry; permission from an immigration officer is also required. The three main categories of visa requirements for entering Ireland are as follows:

  • EU/EEA Nationals: Citizens of EU or EEA member states can stay in Ireland visa-free for up to 90 days with a valid passport or national identity card. No registration is required with immigration authorities upon arrival.
  • Non-EU/EEA Nationals (Exempted): If you are from a country on the exemption list, you do not need to obtain an Irish visa. Register with immigration authorities at the border control upon arrival to receive permission to enter the country.
  • Non-EU/EEA Nationals (Subject to Irish Visa): Residents of non-EU/EEA member states subject to the Irish visa regime must apply for an Irish visa, including:
    • Obtaining permission to travel to Ireland in your home country.
    • Registering with immigration authorities upon arrival in Ireland for permission to enter and stay in the country.

Types of Visas

Visas are categorized based on the duration of stay, purpose of travel, and the number of entries:

C Visa (Visa for Short-term Stay): For trips lasting less than 90 days, a short-term visa is required. The type of visa depends on the purpose of your visit and includes the following options:

  • Tourist Visa
  • Business Visa
  • Employment Visa under the Atypical Working Scheme
  • Stage Performance or Tournament Visa
  • Training Visa
  • Short-term Internship Visa
  • Medical Treatment Visa
  • Join a Ship Visa
  • Exam Visa

D Visa (Visa for Long-term Stay): If your visit exceeds 90 days, you must apply for a long-term visa. Types of long-term visa includes the following options:

  • Study Visa
  • Work Visa
  • Family Visa
  • Working Holiday Visa
  • Researcher Visa
  • Long-Term Internship Visa
  • Minister of Religion Visa
  • Retirement Visa

Transit Visa: Citizens of specific countries require a Transit Visa in Ireland for transportation mode changes at Irish airports or seaports to pass border control.

Single and Multiple Entry Visas: A Single Entry Visa permits only one entry into Ireland, with no re-entry, even if the visa is valid. Multiple Entry Visas allow multiple entries but have stricter requirements and are less common.

All Irish visa applications must be submitted online, with specific submission instructions varying by country. The official Irish government website where immigrants can apply for an Irish Visa is


The residents of Ireland are commonly known as Irish. These people constitute an ethnic group native to the island of Ireland. The Irish people have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisines, and mythology. Throughout history, Ireland has been home to renowned individuals, including scientists like Robert Boyle, considered the ‘father of Chemistry,’ and Robert Mallet, one of the ‘fathers of seismology.’ Irish writers have made significant contributions in both Irish and English literature, such as Eoghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin, Dáibhí Ó Bruadair, Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift, James Joyce, Eavan Boland, and many others. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Tom Crean, among others. Additionally, several presidents of the United States have had Irish ancestry. 

The majority of the Irish population, over 69%, follows Christianity, with Catholics and Protestants being the dominant denominations. Other minority denominations include Eastern Orthodox, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and The Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Ireland also hosts centers for Buddhists, Hindus, Bahá’ís, Pagans, Muslims, and Jewish faiths. The influence of the Roman Catholic Church has played a significant role in shaping Irish culture, and religion continues to be important in the lives of many Irish people. Today, there are notable cultural distinctions between those of Catholic and Protestant backgrounds, as well as between travelers and the settled population. 

Due to historical emigration from Ireland, Irish culture has a global reach, and festivals such as Saint Patrick’s Day and Halloween are celebrated around the world. The Irish people hold strong family values, a keen sense of humor, and a deep appreciation for tradition. Irish cuisine is characterized by fresh vegetables, fish (especially salmon and trout), oysters, other shellfish, traditional soda bread, hand-made cheeses, and potatoes. Traditional dishes like Irish stew, Dublin Coddle, the Irish breakfast, and potato bread are beloved by the people. Additionally, dishes such as Champ, Boxty, Barmbrack, Colcannon, and seafood chowder hold a special place in Irish hearts. You can also enjoy continental cuisines in some places in Ireland, as the Irish have a love for food. The Irish enjoy pubs and clubbing, and as a result, there are numerous pubs throughout Ireland. In places like Dublin, you can often hear loud music playing on the streets. 

Regarding the attitude of the Irish people towards foreigners and immigrants, Ireland has become increasingly diverse in recent years due to immigration. Overall, the Irish are known for their friendliness and hospitality, and many are welcoming to foreigners and immigrants. Ireland has a history of welcoming newcomers and has made efforts to integrate different communities into Irish society. However, like in any society, there may be some variations in attitudes, but the general perception is one of openness and acceptance. It’s essential to respect local customs and traditions when living in or visiting Ireland, as this fosters positive relationships with the local population.

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